What Are The 4 Types Of Investments

Preferences for certain types of investments within asset classes Being diversified across asset classes may help reduce volatility. The seed stage of any organization is clearly embryonic and is therefore more speculative than other rounds of investment. But again, the fundamental point is simply that not all types of "fiduciary" financial advisors are the same. Customize your solution - You can choose the term you want, a fixed or variable interest rate and you can even opt to lock in your money or access it at anytime. Bond Market. 12 / 08 / 2016 You work hard for you money (or should I say bacon), and you deserve to have. Describe the basic characteristics of each type by noting how the business might generate a profit. ) There are various short-term investment accounts available to you, and which is right for you depends on your particular situation and preferences. Only those who have. Growing Your Wealth: 4 Types of Investments that Aren't Stocks 1) Become a Landlord. Venture capital firms may also want a seat on your Board of Directors. Types of life insurance policies. Creating a viable investment plan requires a little more than simply establishing a savings account and buying a few random shares of stocks. ” How the best financial advisors build their firms - Glassman Wealth Services on September 29, 2016 at 10:18 am. " How the best financial advisors build their firms - Glassman Wealth Services on September 29, 2016 at 10:18 am. Income Statement - revenues minus expenses for a given time period ending at a specified date. The defining of an acquisition as either investment or expense, or even a combination of the two, is not always simple. Players in investment markets 5. Commercial loans, which primarily take the form of bank loans issued to foreign businesses or governments. These types of shares in particular are among the most stable long term investments, and provide dividends for income or reinvestment. Keep in mind many of the vehicles discussed above are investment products, not financial planning tools. 7 million small businesses in the U. Different investments produce different types of returns. For example, bank deposits or company deposits are debt while buying shares or investing in equity mutual funds is equity. Unless a company conducts the necessary research and development to develop new products, to improve existing products or services, and to discover ways to operate more efficiently, that company and the economy in which it operates will stagnate. Compensation – Commission based on portfolio size. Partnership number: OC314819. To help us improve GOV. Few are well-structured, while few follow instinctiveness of the investors. High-cost investments. There are many types of investments that will ensure you a safe and secure financial future. September 16, 2016. Back; Current Municipal Bond Market Considerations. Types of business entities There are many types of business entities in the US. The Ten Types of Innovation® framework provides a way to… For many years, executives equated innovation with the development of new products. I previously wrote about the various types of short term investments. In the volatile world of cryptocurrency trading , it is important to implement some strategies needed to manage your cryptocurrency investments. allow you to potentially have more money at retirement or for other investment goals than if you just put your earnings in a bank. He also formulates the credit policy which has a direct influence on debt collection, and the inventory policy which determines the investment in inventory. Types and classification of investments. investments 2. Most shares traded on ASX are ‘ordinary’ shares. Income Statement - revenues minus expenses for a given time period ending at a specified date. Bank Fraud: To engage in an act or pattern of activity where the purpose is to defraud a bank of funds. Some gifts are taxable. More often, fledgling startups must seek investors to help foot the bill for their projects. Called-up capital means the total amount of called up capital on the shares issued and subscribed by the shareholders on capital account. Many different types of corporations exist, and they are generally classified depending on specific factors, which include:. There are maily 4 Finance Functions - Investment Decision, Financial Decision, Dividend Decision and Liquidity Decision. An investment centre is responsible for both profits and investments. This form of ownership is not often used for operating retail or service businesses. It’s important to develop a strategy that closely relates to and matches your company’s profile. Types of Financing. Here are the key features of the four main asset classes. In fact, the. Each provides a different set of expertise. There are four different types of foreign investment. 3 Interpretation PART 2 INVESTMENTS 2. investment risk: Probability that an actual return on an investment will be lower than the investor's expectations. These aren’t just part-time jobs or side hustles, but alternative investments or non-full-time business opportunities that require some type of upfront capital. Each broad investment type—from bank products to stocks and bonds—has its own general set of features, risk factors and ways in which they can be used by investors. Yields as at 31/12/2018, in euros and after deduction of fees. While they’re not tax sheltered, non-registered accounts enable you to invest an unlimited amount of money in an array of investments. 0 means the firm has used more debt than equity to finance its investments. Whether it's your own retirement or a child's college education, setting. The fund manager is tasked with investing in specific types of share and/or specific geographical regions to produce the best results of income, capital growth, or both. 4 Types of Investments That Could Put You On the Street Jamieson Westover. Table 1 offers a quick description of the four levels of innovation. The Dutch investment fund SNS Nederlands Aandelenfonds is a great example: they believe that their investments are based on the principles mentioned above, but in essence they buy almost all Dutch stocks, regardless of their market price. These investment objectives vary from person to person. Bonds are lending investments. This most common permanent life insurance is whole life. Types of Bonds The bond market offers investors more choices than the stock market. Find information on types of bonds at TheStreet. " Key Takeaways. Types of Corporate Bonds. The bond market is a market where debt securities are issued by governments The Ownership Market. For the most part, all of the fund types fall into one of five categories or styles: macro, event driven, arbitrage, long/short and tactical trading. Ordinary shares carry no special or preferred rights. So there you have it, these are the 4 different types of Bitcoin wallets you can use for storing your Bitcoins. Direct investing involves the purchase of a security. Today I am going to discuss the various types of long term investments. Not all entrepreneurship is the same. Investment banks and brokerages are also examples of financial institutions. A mutual fund is an investment tool that may be part of your overall investment portfolio, and many 401(k)s invest in mutual funds. Most unit trusts are managed by subsidiaries of banks, insurance companies or merchant banks. A qualified default investment alternative, or QDIA, is intended to encourage investment of employee assets in appropriate vehicles for long-term retirement savings. Stifel offers four (4) investment objectives, as noted and defined below. Guaranteed Bonds. What are the 4 types of investments 1. , a fixed-income money manager in Los Angeles. Alternative Investments Types; Private Equity. Yields as at 31/12/2018, in euros and after deduction of fees. Defining the 3 types of investments. The 4 types of property commentators revealed - Smart Property Investment Powered by MOMENTUM MEDIA. They usually carry all-time low potential returns of all the investment sorts. Advertisement. n Eligible types of investment. accta December 5, 2015 November 30, Next. government to showcase investment opportunities and bring investors and U. When a individual has arranged a logical order of the types of investments that he requires on his portfolio, the next step is to analyse the securities available for investment. 3 R does not apply if the promotion falls within an exemption in the table in (5) below. Because the investments are diversified across a number of securities, they’re often considered lower risk than many other investments. TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME. After investigating the possible outcomes, the company made the estimates shown in the following table: a. Basically, there are four different types of financial statements. When people talk about stocks in general they are most likely referring to this type. While investing money may not be rocket science, it definitely is a science that takes time, effort, and perseverance to master and produce true results. One of the most lucrative investment options in India- mutual funds is the best investment plan offering higher returns on investment over a long period of time. e if the face value of a share is Rs. If you’re looking for more information about business plans and how to write them, you’ll find our sample business plan library and our guide to writing a detailed business plan to be helpful resources. GAAP requires the following four financial statements: Balance Sheet - statement of financial position at a given point in time. Common types of assets include: current, non-current, physical, intangible, operating and non-operating. Preferred stock. These documents are used by the investment community, lenders, creditors, and management to evaluate an entity. There are many types of investments. 4 Types of MLP ETFs for Income Investors MLPs produce high yields without the strict ties to interest rates. It is a market-linked investment option that invests money in various financial instruments such as equity, debt, stocks, money market fund, etc. The funds that are raised through corporate bonds might be needed to invest in further growth of the company or to invest in new ventures. Investment decisions must be taken based on factors such as an individual’s goals, time horizon and risk appetite. You also need to choose between index funds that are low-cost and aim to replicate the performance of an index such as the FTSE 100. 1 Concentration Restriction 2. Investing in securities involves risks, and there is always the potential of losing money when you invest in securities. However, that small group tends to generate between 55 percent and 70 percent of brand sales. Eight Types of Saving and Investment Options. Common types of brokers include insurance brokers, real estate brokers and stock brokers. Fidelity Investments offers a wide range of services ranging from financial planning to retirement savings. 4/03/2019 07:58. The bond market is a market where debt securities are issued by governments The Ownership Market. Researchers have found that investment fraudsters hit their targets with an array of persuasion techniques that are tailored to the victim's psychological profile. Putting money into guaranteed investments can provide you with an extremely safe way to make a return on your investment. Statement of cash flow or Cash flow statement. More often, fledgling startups must seek investors to help foot the bill for their projects. The 4 Types of Client Objections and How to Meet Them Head-On try to get as much as they can out of the conversation with the least amount of emotional investment and time. Generally, companies that have a market capitalization in the range of Rs. Alternative strategies tend to use unconventional approaches (like leverage and short selling). Available-for-Sale Securities 3. Some of the other names are: Investor risk tolerance, risk temperament, risk profile, investment profile, investor profile, investment profiler, investor profiler, risk attitudes, and investing risk tolerance. Here are the key features of the four main asset classes. With us, you can choose from more than 12,000 funds, some of which may charge a fee. Both can be divided into four main categories: money market funds, equity funds, bond funds, or some combination known as a hybrid fund. Investment banks and brokerages are also examples of financial institutions. Variables involved. They may specialize in a specific area, such as investing or estate planning, or offer general advice regarding every aspect of your finances. The properties are often positioned in strong markets, like thriving metropolitan areas, and are easily financed. As 3(c)(7) hedge funds are available only to qualified purchasers, the $10 million in assets would be an easy threshold to meet and this is why 3(c)(7) funds are limited to 499 investors. Each fund must have a minimum track record of five years or longer. Here's what you should know about four popular types of investment accounts. 1 Definitions 1. The 4 Types of Client Objections and How to Meet Them Head-On try to get as much as they can out of the conversation with the least amount of emotional investment and time. The prevailing conventions on time length of loans and bonds (5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 30 years, with 50 or 100 being more unusual, except in certain countries or markets), coupled with payback periods of different types of investments across sectors and countries select and boost certain specific classes of investment instead of others. Dave Ramsey is a genius when it comes to inspiring people with common sense to get out of debt and to live within their means. All things being equal, investors prefer cash to risky investments because the value of cash does not fluctuate, and it is always readily available to facilitate consumption. The properties are often positioned in strong markets, like thriving metropolitan areas, and are easily financed. As you grow older, your capacity for risk usually diminishes Growth Stocks. Stay safe and secure- Your principal investment amount is 100% guaranteed. Creating a viable investment plan requires a little more than simply establishing a savings account and buying a few random shares of stocks. Types of business entities There are many types of business entities in the US. Investment types The most common terms that are related to different types of investments: Bond: A debt instrument, a bond is essentially a loan that you are giving to the government or a company in exchange for a pre-set interest rate. To help you make heads or tails of these fund types, the table below outlines general definitions, pros and cons, liquidity concerns and other important information to help you make. Wealthfront currently supports the following account types: Personal investment accounts (i. Here's a quick refresher on some of the most popular security investments. Many people find it easier to pay themselves first if they allow their bank to automatically re-move money from their paycheck and deposit it into a savings or investment account. I previously wrote about the various types of short term investments. NATURE AND TYPES OF M&A Mergers vs. Investing – Discount brokerages, bull markets, MER, transfer-in-cash, transfer-in-kind, hedge funds, commodities, dollar cost averaging, forex, REITs. Types of Corporate Bonds. Stocks are the best known equity. Risk Management - Types of Risks Now that we've covered the key tasks of risk management we need to understand that there are different types of risks which have different impacts and therefore need to be treated differently. What is the Return on Investment ROI? T he Return on Investment (ROI) metric is a popular method for evaluating the financial consequences of investments and actions. Capital investments can consist of physical property or the substantial influx of cash into another company through the purchase of stocks or bonds. Cash Equivalents. TFSA Investment Options. Any ratio over 1. What is Cash Flow Analysis? Cash flow. The most common payment intervals are yearly (once a year), semi-annually (twice a year), quarterly (four times a year), and monthly (once a month). Partnership number: OC314819. But again, the fundamental point is simply that not all types of “fiduciary” financial advisors are the same. With very different terms and requirements, it’s necessary to understand the nuances involved with each branch of crowdfunding so as to choose the path most relevant to your goals and needs. Examine the factors that affect profitability. There are three forms of investment returns. No guidance If you prefer, you can be self-directed investor, investing independently without a Financial Advisor. Market risk is the potential for price changes in a market to result in investment losses. Boost odds that at least one type of investment will show growth. The quantity of audit evidence needed is affected by the risk of misstatement (the greater the risk, the more audit evidence is likely to be required) and also by the quality of such audit evidence (the higher the quality, the less the audit evidence that may be required). Mutual funds – Target date funds, balanced funds. Accounting Types help to organize the descriptions (accounting outsourcing service) in meaningful ways. A mutual fund is an investment tool that may be part of your overall investment portfolio, and many 401(k)s invest in mutual funds. Describe the basic characteristics of each type by noting how the business might generate a profit. You can earn by investing in any of these kinds of stocks, you just need to choose what suits your needs. Bonds considered to carry minimal likelihood of default are labeled “investment grade” and are rated Baa3 or higher by Moody’s, or BBB- or higher by Standard & Poor’s and Fitch Ratings. Municipal bonds. For example, cash generated from the sale of goods (revenue) and cash paid for merchandise (expense) are operating activities because revenues and expenses are included in net income. Corporate bond funds invest in bonds that are issued by companies. For example, they may invest in real estate, managed futures, derivatives, currencies, options as well as traditional investment types such as stocks, bonds and cash. Investing in the 4 Great Categories of Financial Markets Money Market. It just might be a perfect fit for your portfolio…or not. Each one is used to store different information about the interests of owners in a business. High-cost investments. A corporation is an entity (usually a business) with the authority under law to act as a single person distinct from the shareholders who own it. GASB 84 defines four generic types of fiduciary funds: Pension (and other employee benefit) trust funds are used to accumulate resources to fund pension and other post-employment benefit (OPEB) plans either as defined in GASB Statement No. A few weeks ago I wrote about 10 alternative investments that you have never heard of. An investor can expect dozens of buyers to show up at the bidding table in a place like Houston, regardless of market conditions. There are various types of investments to choose from, but I’m going to focus on four that are. Among the different types of retirement plans, there are four main types: government-sponsored plans, personal plans, annuities, and employer-sponsored plans. Precious metals. com - DuPont (NYSE: DD) rose by 4. + read full definition are equity risk Equity risk Equity risk is the risk of loss because of a drop in the market price of shares. Stay safe and secure- Your principal investment amount is 100% guaranteed. The most popular type of non-recourse lending for the 1 - 4 family property category is a self-directed IRA. Cash is always king. There are many types of risk, and many ways to evaluate and measure risk. For example, they may invest in real estate, managed futures, derivatives, currencies, options as well as traditional investment types such as stocks, bonds and cash. But today, we find that investment has become a house hold word and is very popular with people from all walks of life. Government Bond Fund. Types of Investments List. The four main types of financial statements are Statement of Financial Position, Income Statement, Cash Flow Statement and Statement of Changes in Equity. There are four main investment asset types and these can be ranked according to their level of risk. 125 Types of Investments There are literally hundreds of off-the-beaten path ways to invest your money, and no list can cover them all. What are the four major types of transactions that affect equity? Answer. retirement accounts in 31 CFR 1010. Let’s run through. Four Types of Risks Posed in Investing. Hence, they too carry a large amount of exchange rate risks. A bond that will mature in 4 years was. You have to be at least 16 years old to open one (18 in the case of shares or investment funds) and for the 2019/2020 tax year, up to £20,000 can be put into a basic ISA. Government Bond Fund. The reason we want to explore the different types of risk is because we want to avoid the ultimate risk: a permanent loss of your capital. Unless a company conducts the necessary research and development to develop new products, to improve existing products or services, and to discover ways to operate more efficiently, that company and the economy in which it operates will stagnate. There are different types of 401k Plans – traditional 401(k) plans, self-directed 401(k) plan, safe harbor 401(k) plans, Tiered Profit Sharing 401(k) plan and SIMPLE 401(k) plans. Traditional Retirement. Ponzi or Quick-Get-Rich Schemes: Even though I did not. To diversify your portfolio, you need to put money into each of the four types of mutual funds mentioned above. Eight Types of Saving and Investment Options. prosperity of the country. Four Types of Investment in Land and Property* Article in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 15(3):343 - 365 · October 2009 with 333 Reads How we measure 'reads'. Glassman,. An income fund provides investors with earnings from the dividends of the companies into which the fund manager puts money. The most common types of investment fraud in Washington. Wealthfront currently supports the following account types: Personal investment accounts (i. Saving and investing money is an essential part of planning for the future. (2) A firm may communicate an invitation or inducement to participate in an unregulated collective investment scheme without breaching the restriction on promotion in section 238 of the Act if the promotion falls within an exemption in the table in (5) below. For example, in 2011, you can give a person up to $13,000 without any party being taxed. These types of foreign investment differ primarily in who gives the loan and how engaged the investor is with the receiver of the loan. Types of Funds DoD appropriated funds are divided into two (2) basic types; (1) investment funds and (2) expense funds. In my August column, I showed how your profits erode when you buy mutual funds that have high expense ratios and high turnover. I've covered several different types of investment accounts in this article. What Are the Different Types of Institutions? The types of financial institutions include commercial banks, investment banks, insurance companies, brokerages, investment firms, management investment companies and non-bank financial institutions including credit unions, payday lenders and savings and loans institutions. Players in investment markets 5. What types of investments can I make with my IRA? The law does not permit IRA funds to be invested in life insurance or collectibles. Cash investments include: High interest savings accounts; The main benefit of a cash investment is that it provides stable, regular income through interest payments. The ownership market involves transactions of property assets. In the volatile world of cryptocurrency trading , it is important to implement some strategies needed to manage your cryptocurrency investments. The reason we want to explore the different types of risk is because we want to avoid the ultimate risk: a permanent loss of your capital. Here are four key things to consider when investing: duration, returns, liquidity and risk. Here are four types of savings accounts that I think everyone should have: Emergency Savings An emergency savings account, or "emergency fund", is the most important savings account you should have. Preferred stock. Post Office Deposit Schemes. Investment Types. Firstly, it is important to understand the structure of the investment banking industry. Income statement. There are different types of 401k Plans – traditional 401(k) plans, self-directed 401(k) plan, safe harbor 401(k) plans, Tiered Profit Sharing 401(k) plan and SIMPLE 401(k) plans. No guidance If you prefer, you can be self-directed investor, investing independently without a Financial Advisor. Investments are, essentially, items or assets that have values that are bought for either capital or income appreciation. He also formulates the credit policy which has a direct influence on debt collection, and the inventory policy which determines the investment in inventory. Protect your investments by watching out for these red flags: It sounds too good to be true "Guaranteed returns" (they don't exist). Consider the classification of investments in accordance with the following generally accepted set of classification characteristics:. A stock is an investment into a public company. In this case, the investor controls the purchase and sale of each security in their portfolio. It is a market-linked investment option that invests money in various financial instruments such as equity, debt, stocks, money market fund, etc. Four Types of Investment Products. Types of Investors. Granted, short-term stock trading is not for everyone and should not be done with a large portion of your entire investment portfolio. Investors can be divided into one of four groups based on their approach to risk, according to a new survey of. Classification is simply a method by which things can be categorized or classified together so that they can be treated as if they were a single unit. Types of Preferred Stock. The types of market you are in determines the type of business strategy you need to have. This is an older approach, as most have have transitioned to a mentoring approach to assist with investment growth. Investment made in new plant and equipment, construction of public utilities like schools, roads and railways, etc. Typically, these types of stocks provide a constant dividend and report stable earnings regardless of the state of the share market as a whole. There various types of Alternative investments. Generally, a smaller. Generally speaking, when one makes an investment, she hopes to use money in order to make more money in the future. The Four Main Types of Funds. They may specialize in a specific area, such as investing or estate planning, or offer general advice regarding every aspect of your finances. Different types of investments Prepared by Pamela Peterson Drake, Ph. Yields as at 31/12/2018, in euros and after deduction of fees. The second is an apartment building with five or more units. Some venture capitalists see a board seat as a form of managing an investment. Step 5: Invest and watch your money grow! It’s really that easy to get started investing in mutual funds with FundsIndia. Trading Securities 2. Fixed Rate Bonds. They are Real estate investments ( houses, apartment buildings, townhouses, and vacation houses. Saving takes place when people abstain from consumption, that is, when they consume less than their income. The factors of time and uncertainty are the defining aspects of any investment project. Section 1 — Findings and Declaration of Policy. 4) Invest in Peer-to-Peer Lending. Yes, I’m one of those people that likes to save money, but I’ve also grown more and more cognizant of the reality that cash flow truly is king. Different Types of Provident Fund and Tax Benefit Related to Investment in Provident Fund Posted on August 20, 2013 August 24, 2013 by Finhealth There are different types of provident fund (PF) which are used by individual for investment and saving purpose and each is having different tax treatment. Financial planners tend to offer the broadest range of services compared to other types of financial experts. In this article, it’s all going to be about the types of stock market that you might encounter once you enter the investing arena. The first is a residential investment property with two to four units. Market segmentation is one of the oldest marketing trick in the books. You can learn more about Portfolio Management from the following articles – Merits of Green Investment; Top Examples of Standard Deviation. TFSA Investment Options. Most of us know the importance of questionnaires in collecting survey data but are uncertain how to place different types of questions in the questionnaire. NATURE AND TYPES OF M&A Mergers vs. Property expert Rob Bence explains how to avoid some common rip-offs. It is supposed to measure how ably the firm can meet its interest obligations. For the most part, all of the fund types fall into one of five categories or styles: macro, event driven, arbitrage, long/short and tactical trading. The four elements. Types of business entities There are many types of business entities in the US. Together, these types of capital are referred to as community capital. Unlike angel investors, they don't use personal funds for investing in startups. Cons of investing in zero-coupon bonds: Phantom taxation occurs if used in a regular investment account; no interest until maturity. They have come into existence in the past couple of decades or so. Stocks and Bonds: How to Choose the Best Investments. More often, fledgling startups must seek investors to help foot the bill for their projects. Investing in such assets is a use of cash, selling them is a source of cash. Net dividends reinvested (if applicable). As you grow older, your capacity for risk usually diminishes Growth Stocks. Investment Banks/Morgan-Stanley, Goldman-Sachs (derivative,. Moreover, by being aware of the particular type of risk an investment is exposed to, investors can make better decisions on what is appropriate for. 8 Types of Investors That Entrepreneurs Need to Avoid Every entrepreneur should do the same due diligence on a potential investor that smart investors do on their startups. Alternative Investments Types; Private Equity. For example, bank deposits or company deposits are debt while buying shares or investing in equity mutual funds is equity. Here, you're buying a policy that pays a stated, fixed amount on your death, and part of your. §1404 §1404. Pakistan and Germany had signed world’s first BIT in late 1950s. Investment Types. Dave recommends people spread their investments across four types of mutual funds: Growth (25%) Growth and Income (25%) Aggressive Growth (25%. A cash investment is often a bank deposit. 4) Invest in Peer-to-Peer Lending. The defining of an acquisition as either investment or expense, or even a combination of the two, is not always simple. government to showcase investment opportunities and bring investors and U. BNY Mellon Investment Management $125,423. Investors should seek such expert advice as may be required including financial advice regarding the appropriateness of investing in any securities or investment strategies that may have been discussed or recommended in this report and should understand that the views regarding future prospects may or may not be realized. When you use Guided Investing, you make your own choices - without any advice from us - and also decide your own risk exposure limits. TFSA Investment Options. Each one is used to store different information about the interests of owners in a business. 4 Types of Guaranteed Investments 1. The four most common types of RE financing are: Traditional Financing This type of loan is generally done through a mortgage broker or bank, and the lender may be a large banking institution or a quasi-government institution (Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, etc). TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME. In fact, the majority of stock issued is in this form. What You Can Do To Avoid Investment Fraud. Mutual Funds. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: